Towards Teaching the Introductory History Course, Digitally (Fall 2011 version)
¶ 1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 For some college students, introductory history courses provide a pathway into the study of the past as a major or a minor, or fulfill their genuine curiosity. Much more often, though, intro courses are populated with students who are enrolled in order to meet a general education obligation. Many faculty members approach these courses with less enthusiasm than they bring to upper-level courses in their areas of specialization, resigned to the fact that a significant portion of the students do not particularly want to take the class. In this context such courses are regularly pitched to meet a specific set of learning goals: to introduce students to broad historical themes in an area, to expose students to the processes and importance of the historical project, and to sharpen students’ critical thinking skills around evidence gathering and argumentation.
¶ 2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 In the past two decades, the Internet has made possible the emphasis of other learning goals in the intro history course. More easily accessible data sets and archival materials have enabled the construction and execution of sophisticated lesson plans beyond a faculty member’s area of focus, and made a rich abundance of sources available for those courses that allow student research. Through these processes such courses can develop a more wide-ranging information literacy in students than was possible a generation ago. They can heighten students’ media literacy as well. The combination of a scholarly “pictorial turn” and the explosion of available primary sources on the Web have injected into intro history courses a more rigorous examination of visual resources.1 Faculty members now lace their lectures with graphics, photographs, and audio and video that are much more readily available than in an earlier era.
¶ 3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 Yet, despite the increased dynamism enabled by these innovations, a fundamental tension that has infused the learning goals of the introductory course for years remains: the tension around coverage. Most of these courses are surveys, and they begin in a moment and promise to end in a moment. The schedule of the course requires quick and steady forward progress whether or not students have mastered a period’s complexity. Faculty members, especially new ones acclimating to the vocation (who at our college teach a significant portion of the introductory courses offered),2 are regularly plagued with guilt about oversimplification, leaving those inevitable loose threads, and moving too fast. Many students get lost in a blizzard of facts and become convinced that if they did not understand the 1920s there is no way they can understand the 1930s and if that is the case, what is the point of reading about the 1940s? The students who are going to be history majors or hobbyists excel, the others do less well, and then the faculty member resets for another run through the chronology.
¶ 4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 Models other than the survey for introductory history courses exist. For instance, at our college, students may elect to meet their general education distribution requirements via a “themes” course, which tends to be more focused on a set of ideas or circumstances. These courses still tend also to proceed chronologically, but students may linger on a particular subject for weeks at a time and explore it more deeply, and the pressure towards coverage so embedded in the survey is less present.
¶ 5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 We have been exploring an approach to the introductory history course that seeks to build into it an array of pedagogical approaches that we feel make it a more immersive and ultimately more influential experience. It borrows from the “themes” approach in that it seeks to more deeply ingrain into students a particular kind of historical understanding, but it also follows the trend in upper-level and graduate courses to make the process of doing history the implicit subject of exploration.
¶ 6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 2 Four specific and related pedagogical processes have influenced the shaping of the course. The methods of Writing Across the Curriculum/Writing in the Disciplines programs (WAC/WID) have helped us shape a wide-variety of writing assignments that create a sustained, multi-modal engagement with course materials. The Visual Knowledge Project (VKP) has taught us that by having students make public their engagement with the topics of the course, instructors have more chances to intervene in student learning, and students also have the opportunity to see how their classmates make knowledge.3 The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement has expanded exponentially the source material we draw upon in our teaching, moving us far beyond a textbook, and helped us play with the traditional definitions of a “course.” And the principles of networked learning tie the other approaches together, emphasizing for students that doing history is a collaborative and dialogic process.
¶ 7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 2 Before delving into additional detail about the courses in question, we would like to share a bit about our collaboration. Since 2006 we have worked together at the Bernard L. Schwartz Communication Institute at Baruch College, City University of New York (CUNY), Tom first as a Fellow for Instructional Technology and now as the Project Manager for Digital Learning, and Luke first as a CUNY Writing Fellow and now as the Assistant Director for Educational Technology. The Schwartz Institute was founded as an academic support unit intended to improve the communication skills of Baruch students, and since Mikhail Gershovich became director in 2006, work there has focused increasingly on educational technology. We both earned our doctorates in history from the CUNY Graduate Center, and as graduate students we both worked with the American Social History Project. Luke has taught history as an adjunct instructor at Baruch and Montclair State; Tom has taught history as an adjunct at Baruch. Luke’s primarily current responsibility at the Institute is to run Blogs@Baruch, an open source publishing platform built on WordPress that is used by nearly 9000 members of the Baruch community for a variety of purposes, including course blogs, departmental and program websites, and online magazines and journals.4 The system has more than 1600 individual spaces, and Luke maintains and develops on the installation, supports all users, and advises faculty members on how they can use the space to meet their pedagogical goals. Tom’s work at the Institute ranges from video editing to hardware and software support for staff engaged in digital communication projects. The courses that prompted this essay were Tom’s, and each was taught using Blogs@Baruch, with Luke as a sounding board, adviser, and occasional participant both in class and on the course sites. We use the term “we” advisedly; Luke has learned much Tom’s course design and management, and Tom has learned much from Luke’s knowledge of the open publishing platforms and pedagogy. Most significantly, our numerous conversations about teaching history have always been imbued with a distinct sense of how the study doing so should fit into the larger curriculum of a college, and we share a commitment to experimentation with fresh methods and ideas.
¶ 8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 In the fall of 2008, Tom taught his first class at Baruch, an introductory U.S. history course. For nearly all of the students, this was their first class in history and was likely to be their last, given their interest in pursuing business-related majors.5 Difficult decisions quickly arose about when to allocate class time and materials to discussion of broad themes of U.S. history versus when to drill down on specific facts about seminal moments. An effective division needed to be drawn between historical and historiographical study.
¶ 9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 Tom decided to devote roughly one-third of class time to exploration of methodology. Most of this time was used by students working in groups to analyze photocopied primary source documents. Most students participated enthusiastically in these exercises, but their work was highly compartmentalized and constrained within small groups. Upon completion of an in-class activity, students routinely reported back to the rest of the class, but these were often limited by class time and students’ difficulty sharing visual content in real time. For example, in one assignment, students met in small groups to draw conclusions about a series of three primary documents dealing with one aspect of Reconstruction. Each group had a unique set of documents (e.g., documents detailing changes in voting rights), but similar questions that required them to make decisions about the combined meaning of the sources. In addition to answering what information could be gleaned from the documents, students were also required to hypothesize which additional sources would enable deeper, more accurate conclusions about the subtopic. A “recorder” in each group wrote answers to questions that the instructor collected. During a report-back session, a “reporter” from each group spoke for a minute or two to summarize their conclusions and communicate a takeaway message that would be useful to other students for understanding the subtheme. Some groups used electronic devices to seek contextual information about authors of the documents and the period or location where a given document was produced. And a subset of these students located additional documents that complemented those in front of them. However, these groups did not have a way to easily share that information with the whole class.
¶ 10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 In this setting, students gained some experience practicing history, but not in the immersive, interconnected manner that Tom was seeking. We both believe that undergraduates, even if taking their first and last college-level history course, can benefit immensely from exposure to and trial with methods employed by professional historians. By doing research in primary sources to deepen their comprehension of a particular topic, and entering into dialogue with existing analyses to synthesize their own understanding, students can better learn to grasp the complex, contested nature of historical knowledge, and integrate that skill into their vision of the world. These goals were not being met via the mostly bidirectional conversations happening between Tom and his students. Student thinking processes were also not being recorded in a way that could easily be shared with and reflected upon by the rest of the class. Communication between instructor and students was limited to feedback transferred in a shuffle of paper; students were not seeing and learning from one another’s successes and failures in reading, interpreting, and writing about history. When connections between in-class student work and the larger themes of the course were made, they were too often limited to a particular interaction with a single student, and not sustained subsequent classes.
¶ 11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 In an effort to expand and extend the sharing process, Tom turned to digital technology. At first, this meant the college’s course management system: Blackboard. It provided students with a space to carry on discussions outside of class, where they could share conclusions from one day and pose related questions going into the next. Yet, the system replicated many of the divisions previously encountered in the classroom, and failed to break the call-and-response pattern in which students answered narrowly-defined questions posed by the instructor. Because of its graphic design, site architecture, and barrier between it and the open web, the system was largely devoid of student-published multimedia and student voices. Student work could not be shared beyond the class, and even within the class it was difficult to create a web of knowledge that could be referenced, reorganized, and built upon.
¶ 12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 In the summer of 2010, Tom taught the history survey again. But this time he made use of the college’s open publishing platform, Blogs@Baruch, and engaged Luke as a partner. We drafted the architecture of the web space simultaneously with construction of the syllabus. By choosing a highly-customizable WordPress theme—Atahualpa—that elegantly displayed images, and adding a plugin— NextGen Image Gallery—that allowed for easy embedding of slideshows, we created a site that welcomed student creativity. Yet we also structured the space with a categorization system that brought order to the content as it accrued over time. We created two types of categories: major themes of the course, and out-of-class assignments. We intentionally left the taxonomy loose, leaving much of the classification work to the students.
¶ 13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 During the first couple weeks of class, when student contributions to the blog were still limited, students referred to the course site as a “resource.” They expected that it would spit out information that they needed or desired: the syllabus, readings, lecture slides, and ultimately—at the end of the course—a grade. Over the course of the semester, there were indeed many times that the site did operate as a tool for the transmission of information, and it did so quite effectively. But after about three weeks, students began to see the site was more than that. They recognized that it was, above all, an active workspace that both encapsulated and propelled the majority of the work for the course. That semester, it became clear to Tom that using an open publishing platform exponentially expanded the opportunities for a range of work to be done and created conditions for pedagogical experimentation that weren’t present in a more traditionally structured lecture/discussion intro course.
¶ 15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 1 In the following paragraphs, we will describe some of the key characteristics that have emerged through the use of Blogs@Baruch in introductory history courses, initiated first during the summer of 2010 and then developed further through six additional sections taught in 2010-2011. These specific qualities show how the course sites have enabled students to consistently practice various historical methods and skills, and exemplify the pedagogical approaches that we value and believe should be central components of a school’s general education curriculum. We’ve chosen to focus on how running these courses has impacted our thinking about pedagogy. Due to FERPA concerns, we’ve intentionally omitted any direct links to or citation of student work.
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Whether students participate in flurries of informal discussion or composition of essays based on deep research and reflection, they are constantly expressing new ideas on their course sites throughout the semester. To challenge students’ preconception that successful history equals memorizing content, we require them to repeatedly engage with a range of sources. Students are required to visit the site between every class meeting, and at each stage contribute something new in response to a writing prompt.
¶ 17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 This encourages students to specialize their knowledge in narrow topics of their choosing. This prepares them to challenge historical treatment of that topic in our course textbook, lectures, and discussions. And most importantly, it prepares them to teach their classmates about their topic and field questions about the turf they have just familiarized themselves with. There is not enough time for students to exhaustively research topics, but regardless of their level of mastery over the material, students can get some taste of what it means to develop expertise, and the process by which a community of learners strives for this goal. The degree to which they develop deeper understanding of a particular subject is documented as they construct “micro-monographs,” three- to four-paragraph essays that elaborate on very narrow topics.6
¶ 18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 We find that many students, once they begin such investigations, thrive in the role of detective, particularly at assessing the accuracy of information. For instance, when students were asked to fact check Martin Scorsese’s Gangs of New York using a series of digital archives and asked to publish their findings on the course site, most were able to expound on their findings with embedded images, videos and texts (from both primary and secondary sources), offering narratives that replaced and corrected those conveyed by the movie. In addition to giving students some brief experience with this process, it sets up reflective conversations in class about the processes in academia and commercial publishing by which monographic works are produced, interpreted, and synthesized. In this context, students can begin to evaluate their own work as a secondary source. This type of exploratory learning is closely in line with our belief that students learn best when they are producing knowledge.7
¶ 19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 Students also practice modifying their historical narratives and conclusions as they answer their peers’ questions and gather new information. Such assignments immerse them in the process that is so common to the work of humanists: constructing an argument and adjusting it many times in the face of questions and new evidence. By doing so, students experience first-hand the evolving and contested nature of historical understanding.
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In the open environment of the course site, students can easily view other student-created historical arguments and respond to them. In class we review examples of model critiques, which helps students hone their ability to offer constructive criticism. Our online conversations are often enriched by students’ quick access to new information from digital archives across the Internet, and the ease with which they can draw in historical evidence. In addition to helping fellow classmates by asking questions and offering critiques of blog posts, students often willingly share sources with one another, even when not specifically prompted to do so by assignments. The course site extends and ties together our face-to-face meetings: sometimes work on the site helps set up in-class conversations by establishing questions and lines of argument, while at other times it serves as an extension of debates and investigations that germinated while we met.
¶ 21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 3 During the fall of 2010 and spring of 2011, Tom had students from two simultaneous sections of his introductory course share a single web space. Most students took naturally to initiating conversations with students from outside of their own section. Many of the most probing questions and constructive criticisms were launched across sections. The extra social (and physical) distance between the students worked as an advantage more often than not, with shy students more likely to speak freely from a somewhat more anonymous position. The additional voices in the space intensified the rate at which ideas were exchanged, and gave each class much more material to consider.
¶ 22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 3 The social dimension of Blogs@Baruch became more pronounced when we incorporated BuddyPress in the fall of 2010. This plugin allows students to customize profile pages, track their work across the installation over their career at the college, and interact with other students system-wide. The simple act of linking their account to a profile picture gives students a stronger attachment to the course site, as their profile picture shows up every time they leave a comment in the system. Students at Baruch are introduced to Blogs@Baruch in their Freshman Seminar courses, and they intuitively approach the platform as an academic network rather than a social one. They have little interest in discussing non-academic topics in this venue; for that they have Facebook. More and more students are using Blogs@Baruch in a variety of classes, and we are exploring ways to develop curricula that take fuller advantage of the networked nature of this publishing. We’ve seen what can be happen when we link a couple of sections of a class that share a professor and a syllabus; we’d like to explore how the curriculum of the college can be impacted by experiments around interdisciplinary exchanges and co-teaching across departments.
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Much of the vibrancy of the community within our course sites flows from the fact that we keep the spaces open. Everything the students contribute, unless they choose otherwise, instantly becomes visible across the Web. On a few occasions, students have received comments on their posts from professional historians. In one case, a photo archivist from a presidential library asked a student about the provenance of an image he had posted. Apparently, the image the student had used was pervasive on the Internet, but the original source information had been lost. The student did not have the answer to the archivist’s puzzle, but this prompted a series of valuable teaching moments about the implications of open publishing, the work of the archivist and the historian, and the complex issues that surround questions of intellectual property.
¶ 24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 4 A learning environment as open as this also has a profound effect on helping students imagine audiences for their writing. Before using an open publishing platform in the survey course, students wrote primarily for us as the instructors, perhaps with some moments of peer review sprinkled in. When students publish to an open platform, indexed by Google, the stakes are immediately raised. We spend significant time in class discussing the implications of openness on writing and review processes. The diversity of audiences and intensive peer review made possible by the shape of our web spaces sharpens student writing as well as their historical thinking. In pursuing this goal, we are influenced by WAC/WID programs, which hold that having students write frequently and in a variety of modes and for a range of audiences deepens their engagement with course material.
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WordPress provides easy options for elegantly combining multiple media forms. Many assignments call on students to present and interpret images, audio, and video. This introduces students to the power of multimedia to represent (or in some cases misrepresent) historical ideas. It also brings them face to face with particular methodological challenges that accompany the use of visual and aural sources, and offers them a sandbox in which they can practice distinctive techniques for reading multimedia sources. Students regularly embed images, consult online tutorials for analyzing visual evidence (such as those provided on History Matters), and write up their findings.8 Classmates comment to question or build upon the initial interpretation of the source.
¶ 26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 1 The aesthetic richness of the site is achieved primarily through the work of the students. WordPress software allows for simple embedding of images and video, so students constantly illuminate points in their own writing using the surrounding space. At times, they are given an opportunity to fill other spaces on the site. Students begin each semester with writing activities and multimedia presentations about which people, places, and events they believe best represent the themes of the course as they understand them. They locate and upload header images for the site that they deem representative of important turning points in U.S. history, and the header automatically rotates through their selections during the semester. This assignment provides us the opportunity to uncover and interrogate students’ preconceptions about the themes of the course and the study of history as we begin the semester. It also allows students to see themselves as producers with a significant degree of control over their learning environment. Students have remarked that seeing their work profiled prominently on the site, in both the header and the content of their posts, gives them a sense of ownership over the space.
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Many of the interactions between students and the course site require them to reflect on their content before or after they publish it. Before adding any text or media to the site, students must think about the most appropriate placement of their new information, deciding whether to write a new post, respond to an existing post with a comment, or reply to a comment in a threaded conversation.
¶ 28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 Students also gain experience classifying knowledge after they have finished composing a post. They are responsible for much of the organizing, categorizing, and prioritizing of their work, using categories and tags. This forces them to revisit their creations relative to larger projects, and oftentimes relative to the larger goals of the course. When they “tag” a post, students must extract the three or four key ideas present in their discussion, and their choices contribute to the building of a folksonomy of the content of the course. The tagging organizes the roughly 500 posts authored by each class during the semester into archives. This eases assessment, and students can review their portfolio of contributions, and with a single click, a series of posts on a topic.
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Our course sites provide a hands-on learning environment in much the same way that a laboratory enriches a class in the hard sciences. In the process of analyzing primary documents during class group-work, they actively practice historical inquiry. And thanks to powerful digital archives and web spaces such as The Lost Museum, Picturing U.S. History, and the September 11 Digital Archive, we witness students grappling with historical questions while engulfed in a sea of sources.9 Prior to the availability of a site that allowed for open student publishing, students learned from immersion on a more atomized scale, and it was a challenge to maintain continuity between discrete rounds of experimentation. Students entered microcosmic historical study spaces, but rarely had the freedom to range widely and pioneer new projects.
¶ 30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 An online publishing platform like Blogs@Baruch helps bridge this gap and stretch the canvas on which students can work across the entire course. Instead of punctuating single units alone, as many existing history teaching modules that employ technology do, the space builds over time and reveals to students major themes and connections in a way they can easily grasp, engage with, and revisit. The course site also helps students visualize the tension between breadth and depth in the study of history. Students demonstrate a greater awareness of historical perspective than was present before we developed such a space, and the site helps them understand the differences between various methodologies in historical study.
¶ 31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 The space also helps immerse the teacher more deeply in the pedagogical experience. As the Visible Knowledge Project has demonstrated, digital tools can foster transparency of processes that allow teachers to not only better assess their students learning, but also their own teaching strategies. Documentation of student learning in an open web publishing space forces important questions about teaching to the surface. Some of those questions include:
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- How can student work outside of class be seamlessly integrated with face-to-face experiences in the classroom?
- What types of writing should students spend their time on?
- How tightly should instructors at this level scaffold research and writing assignments?
- How frequently and bluntly should instructors redirect communication from and between students?
- To what degree should larger research and writing projects be assigned across the semester relative to smaller, daily tasks?
- How frequently should students practice and reflect on methodology and historiography, as opposed to historical content?
- What factors determine whether students should work independently or in groups?
¶ 33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 These pedagogical puzzles do not disappear with the implementation of an open web publishing space, but they are more routinely foregrounded in the preparatory process, and in order to make the space an effective one the instructor must grapple with them. While projects like the Visual Knowledge Project exposed the “intermediate thinking process” in particular projects and course units, publishing platforms like WordPress now make it possible across not only an entire course, but multiple iterations of the course. Both students and faculty can navigate the sites conducting the type of “socially situated learning” promoted and prized by the VKP as “intrinsic to the development of expert-like abilities and dispositions in novice learners.”10
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Assessment and Moving Forward
One of Tom’s students, when Luke asked her and her classmates how they felt about their course blog, responded “I don’t like it because it keeps the class always on my mind.” To a faculty member, this is praise with faint damnation. We all want our students to be absorbed in the processes of the course, even if we would prefer they be less resistant than this student to such absorption. We have not yet designed an assessment to measure student learning within this type of course, though it is something we would like to find the time and resources to implement with adherence to FERPA. Students in these classes are certainly writing more frequently and voluminously than they have in previous courses that we have each taught. In earlier iterations, students wrote on average three five-to-seven page papers, or roughly four thousand words, over the course of the semester. In these recent courses, students are writing about twice that much, in shorter and much more varied bursts.
¶ 35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 1 The course sites have served as highly effective assessment tools. They paint a more complete, richer picture of student performance and understanding than do the traditional midterm/essay/final exam models. A significant portion of final grades (at least 30 percent) is determined by their performance on the course website, and students are judged on their creativity, effort, attention to instructions, and the timeliness of their contributions.
¶ 36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 Like most public universities, ours is under significant pressure to cut costs. Two methods that are being explored are jumboization to save money on labor, and hybridization to save money on space. Technology is necessarily implicated in both of these processes, and we’ve been insistent that Blogs@Baruch and the services of the Schwartz Institute not become regarded as “efficiency” tools at the college. But faculty members are increasingly caught in a situation where they are forced to teach courses much larger or different in structure than what they would prefer, and the experimentation around questions of pedagogy and curriculum development that we are doing can provide guidance and models through this transition. Small introductory history courses at large public universities are simply not on the horizon anytime soon. This context increases pressure on faculty to focus on coverage, because assigning reading and delivering lectures appears to be more manageable and measurable than having students produce a significant amount of work in their own words.
¶ 37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 Our experiments, though, suggest that history courses that embrace and build upon the idea of “the student as producer” can invigorate introductory history instruction, as well as introductory courses in other disciplines, while pushing back against the passivity and anonymity that prevail in larger courses. It is important that we not eschew factual knowledge—“coverage”—but we can certainly devote more of our energy to building the conditions for that understanding to best develop and to continue to develop after the semester ends. At their best, these courses can not only provide a baseline for our students to know about the past; they can also teach our students what it means to do history.
¶ 38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 About the authors: Luke Waltzer is the Assistant Director for Educational Technology at the Bernard L. Schwartz Communication Institute, Baruch College. He holds a PhD in History from the CUNY Graduate Center. He can be found online at http://lukewaltzer.com and on Twitter @lwaltzer. Thomas Harbison is the Project Manager for Digital Learning at the Bernard L. Schwartz Communication Institute, and holds a PhD in History from the CUNY Graduate Center.
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- Michael Coventry et al., “Ways of Seeing: Evidence and Learning in the History Classroom,” Journal of American History 92 (March 2006), http://www.journalofamericanhistory.org/textbooks/2006/introduction.html. ↩
- In the spring 2010 semester, adjuncts taught 8 of the 16 introductory classes offered by the department. In fall 2010, adjuncts taught 8 of 24 introductory courses. In spring 2011, the number was 7 out of 19; and in fall 2011 it was 6 out of 18. About half of the courses that the department offers are introductory. Information supplied by the History Department in email correspondence on September 7, 2011. ↩
- See https://commons.georgetown.edu/blogs/vkp/. ↩
- See Blogs@Baruch at http://blsciblogs.baruch.cuny.edu. ↩
- According to the Baruch College Office of Institutional Research and Program Assessment, 78.2% of Baruch undergraduate students intend to study a field within the Zicklin School of Business. See http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/ir/FACTSHEET.htm. ↩
- Educational researcher and historian Sam Wineburg has shown that students of history process new information in a more sophisticated and productive way as their expertise in a field deepens. Samuel S. Wineburg, “The Cognitive Representation of Historical Texts,” in Teaching and Learning in History, eds. Gaea Leinhardt, Isabel L. Beck, and Catherine Stainton (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994), 85-135. ↩
- For more on the notion of “The Student as Producer,” see Mike Neary and Joss Winn’s work at the University of Lincoln: http://studentasproducer.lincoln.ac.uk/. ↩
- “Making Sense of Evidence.” http://historymatters.gmu.edu/browse/makesense/. ↩
- “The Lost Museum,” http://www.lostmuseum.cuny.edu/home.html; “Picturing U.S. History,” http://picturinghistory.gc.cuny.edu/;“The September 11th Digital Archive,” http://911digitalarchive.org/. ↩
- See https://commons.georgetown.edu/blogs/vkp/themes-findings/. ↩